Gold | Properties | Uses | Other Details - Elements and Compounds


Thursday, February 23, 2023

Gold | Properties | Uses | Other Details

Gold Properties Uses and other Details

    What is Gold

    Gold is a metal and it is an element. It is a very valuable and shiny yellow metal. Its symbol is AU. Its atomic weight is 196.967 and its atomic number is 79. Its atom contains 79 electrons, 79 protons, and 118 neutrons. The density of gold metal is 19.282 grams per cubic centimetre, it is solid at normal temperature and it melts at 1064.18 degree Celsius and it starts boiling at 2856 degree Celsius.
    Who discovered the gold metal is unknown because gold has been used for thousands of years.
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    Gold Properties Uses and other Details

    Properties of Gold Metal

    • Gold is a very rare metal, so it is also a very valuable metal. The purity of gold is measured in karat, the purity of pure gold is 24 karat, 22 karat gold consists of 22 parts (91.666 %) of gold and 2 parts (8.333 %) of other metals, similarly 18 karat gold consists of 18 parts (75%) is gold and 6 parts (25%) are other metals.
    • Gold is a very soft metal, so it is not used in its pure state. To make jewelry etc. from gold, first it is hardened by adding some amount of silver or copper, mostly copper is added to it, then jewelry is made from it.
    • The density of gold is very high, due to which it is one of the heaviest metals. The weight of 1 cubic centimeter of gold is 19.282 grams, so gold is about two and a half times heavier than iron.
    • Gold resists most acids, it is soluble only in aqua regia acid. Aqua regia is a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid in the ratio 1:3.
    • Gold is a chemically inactive metal, so it does not react with chemicals, due to which gold never gets tarnished and it is not affected by water, weather or environment.
    • Pure gold is the most malleable metal, that is, gold can be beaten into the thinnest sheet, a 1 gram piece of gold can be beaten and spread over 1 square meter without breaking. In this condition the gold sheet becomes so thin that it becomes semi-transparent through which some amount of light can also pass through.
    • Pure gold has the highest ductility property after platinum, due to this quality a 1 gram piece of gold can be pulled into a 2400 meter long wire without breaking.
    • Gold is a very good conductor of heat and electricity.
    • Gold does not react with any other non-metals except the halogens, the five toxic elements of Group 17 of the Periodic Table, which are fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, astatine.
    • Gold is soluble in mercury, but it does not react chemically with mercury, the mixture of gold and mercury is called amalgam.

    Uses of Gold Metal

    • Gold being a precious metal, it was used as currency in ancient times. Coins are also made from gold.
    • Gold is seen as a currency all over the world, which is recognised everywhere, so gold is considered one of the safest investments, so most countries keep large amounts of gold with them. For example, USA has gold reserves of more than 8000 tonnes, which is the highest in the world. Similarly, many investors also buy and keep gold with them, which is helpful for them in times of recession.
    • Gold is mostly used in making ornaments. Gold is mostly used in the form of ornaments in India.
    • Gold-198 is a radioactive form of gold, it is used in giving radiotherapy to cancer patients.
    • Gold is used as a medicine in Ayurveda, by converting gold into ashes, it is used in the treatment of many diseases in the form of Swarnabhasma (Gold ash).
    • Gold has been used in dental treatment for about 3000 years. Gold is considered to be the best material for filling cavities and replacing broken teeth with new teeth, because gold is an inert metal as well as a nonallergic metal, which does not cause any harm to the body. Gold is an inert metal, so when it is applied in place of teeth, it does not react with any food item, due to which no harmful chemical are formed in the mouth, hence it is the most favourable metal for the body. Apart from this, gold is a very soft and flexible metal, so it easily takes the shape of teeth.
    • Gold is also used in food. A very thin layer is made of gold by beating it, which is called gold foil, in India Sweets are decorated with it and used in food.
    • Gold does not rust and weather has no effect on it, so it is used to protect the surface of any object and to enhance its beauty, it is also called gold-plating. Mechanical and chemical means are used for coating.
    • Apart from being anti-corrosion, gold is also a very good conductor of electricity, so it is used to coat electrical connector joints. Due to this property of gold, a layer of gold is plated on the motherboard and other parts of almost all electronics devices such as mobile laptops, computers, calculators, etc., so that electricity can flow through them easily and they can work smoothly for a long time.
    • Gold-coated polyester film is applied to the glass of all spacecraft windows and the glass of astronaut's helmet, this layer blocks and reflect harmful infrared radiation coming from the Sun. It is also used on the dark colored parts of the spacecraft, so that the sun's radiation does not increase the temperature of that part too much.
    • Gold is used to make medals and trophies for the winners in various competitions like Olympics etc.

    Where Is Gold Found

    Gold is found in pure state in nature, it is distributed in minute quantities in igneous rocks. Gold in India is extracted from Kolar mines, and the largest gold production in the world is done in China.

    Some interesting facts about Gold Metal 

    • Gold is about two and a half times heavier than iron.
    • Gold dissolves in mercury when it comes in contact with mercury.
    • According to an estimate, till the year 2015, only 1,86,700 tonnes of gold was extracted in the whole world.
    • 50% of the total gold production in the world is used in the manufacture of jewelry, 40% of gold is used in investment and 10% of gold is used in industries.
    • Gold can be beaten into very fine sheets called gold foil, which can be 40 times thinner than a human hair.
    • A 2400 meter long thread can be made by pulling a 1 gram piece of gold.

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