Dinitrogen Pentoxide | Properties | Uses | Other Details - Elements and Compounds


Thursday, February 23, 2023

Dinitrogen Pentoxide | Properties | Uses | Other Details

Dinitrogen Pentoxide Properties Uses and other Details

    What is Dinitrogen Pentoxide

    Dinitrogen pentoxide is an inorganic compound, it is made up of nitrogen and oxygen. Its one molecule contains two atoms of nitrogen and five atoms of oxygen. The chemical formula of its compound is N2O5. Dinitrogen pentoxide is the anhydride form of nitric acid. It is a transparent or white colored crystalline solid. It is an unstable compound, which spontaneously decomposes into nitrogen dioxide and oxygen at room temperature. Dinitrogen pentoxide is a nitrating agent. It can be obtained by dehydrating nitric acid with diphosphorus pentoxide and oxidizing nitrogen dioxide with ozone. Dinitrogen pentoxide is used as an oxidizing agent in many chemical reactions.

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    Dinitrogen Pentoxide Properties Uses and other Details

    Properties of Dinitrogen Pentoxide

    • Dinitrogen pentoxide is an odorless, transparent or white crystalline solid.
    • Its density is 1.64 grams per cubic centimeter.
    • Its molar mass is 108.01 g/mol.
    • Its melting point is 30°C and boiling point is 47°C.
    • It melts at temperatures above 30 °C and appears as a yellowish liquid.
    • Its vapor is heavier than air.
    • It is highly acidic in nature.
    • It is soluble in chloroform.
    • It is a strong oxidizing and nitrating agent.
    • The highly toxic nitrogen dioxide gas is produced when nitrogen pentoxide decomposes.
    • Dinitrogen pentoxide N2O5 is not explosive by itself, but it can form explosive mixtures with various organic compounds.
    • Dinitrogen pentoxide reacts with water to form nitric acid :- N2O5 + H2O → 2HNO3.
    • It reacts with a strong base like sodium hydroxide to form sodium nitrate and water:- N2O5 + 2 NaOH → 2NaNO3 + H2O.
    • It reacts with hydrochloric acid (HCl) to form nitric acid and nitrile chloride:- N2O5 + HCl → HNO3 + NO2Cl.
    • Dinitrogen pentoxide is toxic.

    Uses of Dinitrogen Pentoxide

    • Dinitrogen pentoxide is used as a nitrating agent.
    • It is being used as an oxidizing agent in various chemical reactions.
    • It is used as a strong oxidizer for rocket fuel. Apart from this, it is also used in making explosives like TNT.
    • It is used as a solvent for various compounds.
    • It is used as a non-water-based solvent to easily nitrate very water-sensitive substances.
    • For nitration it is used as a reagent dissolved in chloroform.

    Other Details

    • Dinitrogen pentoxide was first prepared in 1840 by treating silver nitrate (AgNO3) with chlorine.
    • Dinitrogen pentoxide is highly unstable, so nitronium tetrafluoroborate (NO2BF4) is largely used in its place today.
    • Dinitrogen pentoxide is a strong oxidizing agent, which forms explosive mixtures with organic compounds and ammonium salts. Also its decomposition produces highly toxic nitrogen dioxide gas.
    • Like other oxides of nitrogen, its inhalation produces toxic effects, mainly targeting the lungs. Due to which symptoms like mild irritation in the respiratory tract, cough, sore throat, headache, dizziness and tightness in the chest may appear. Apart from this, its exposure for a long time can also cause pulmonary edema and inflammation of the lungs.
    • Gaseous dinitrogen pentoxide may cause eye irritation and conjunctivitis.
    • Gaseous dinitrogen pentoxide damages the ozone layer.

    Detailed Information on Some other Compounds

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