Iodine | Properties | Uses | and Facts - Elements and Compounds


Sunday, April 2, 2023

Iodine | Properties | Uses | and Facts

Properties Uses and Facts about Iodine

    What is Iodine

    Iodine is classified as a nonmetal and chemically it is an element. Iodine is located in group 17 of the periodic table, all elements in this group are called halogens. Iodine has the atomic mass of 126.9044 AMU, the atomic number 53, and the symbol (I). In the periodic table, iodine is located in group 17, period 5 and block (P). Its atom has 53 electrons, 53 protons, 74 neutrons and 5 energy levels. The density of iodine is 4.93 grams per cubic centimeter. Iodine is found in the solid state at room temperature, its melting point is 113.7 °C (236.7 °F), and its boiling point is 184.4 °C (364 °F).

    Iodine was discovered by Bernard Courtois in 1811.
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    Iodine Properties Uses and Facts

    Properties of Iodine

    • Iodine is a black, shiny, crystalline solid.
    • Iodine has a very strong smell.
    • Iodine does not react with oxygen, nitrogen and ozone gas.
    • On heating iodine, it does not melt, but directly converts into violet colored vapor.
    • Iodine can be melted under the controlled atmosphere of the laboratory and under special conditions.
    • Iodine is a chemically active element, so it is not found in pure state in nature.
    • Iodine is chemically less reactive than other halogens such as fluorine, chlorine and bromine.
    • Iodine dissolves in carbon-tetrachloride, while it is sparingly soluble in water.
    • Pure iodine is toxic.
    • Iodine and all the halogens react with all alkaline earth metals.

    Uses of Iodine

    • Iodine is an essential nutrient for humans; an adult needs 150 mcg of iodine per day. Iodine in excess of this is toxic.
    • Iodine is a part of the thyroid hormone secreted by the thyroid gland in our body. Thyroid hormone controls the rate of physical and mental development in our body. Iodine deficiency causes swelling in the thyroid gland, which causes swelling in the throat called goiter and many other diseases. To prevent this, some amount of iodine is added to the table salt, which is called iodized salt.
    • Iodine is used in the test of starch.
    • Iodine is used to make polarizing filters for LCD displays.
    • Iodine-133, a radioactive isotope of iodine, is used in the treatment of thyroid cancer.
    • Potassium-iodite and silver-iodine were used to make photographic film.
    • Iodine and alcohol are combined to make an antiseptic called tincture, which is used for external wounds.
    • Many salts of iodine are used in pharmaceuticals, printing inks, as supplements to animal feed, and as catalysts.
    • Silver-iodite is used in cloud seeding.

    Interesting Facts about Iodine

    • Iodine was first used commercially for photography.
    • Pure iodine must be used with caution, as it can burn the skin and damage the mucous membranes of the eyes.
    • Iodine occurs naturally in water and soil, and the oceans contain far more iodine than soil.

    Detailed Information on Some other Elements

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