Gallium | Properties | Uses | and Facts - Elements and Compounds


Wednesday, April 26, 2023

Gallium | Properties | Uses | and Facts

Properties Uses and Facts about Gallium

    What is Gallium

    Gallium is a metal, and chemically it is an element, it is classified as other metal. Gallium has a density of 5.91 grams per cubic centimeter. Its atomic weight is 69.723 AMU, atomic number 31 and its symbol is Ga. Its atom has 31 electrons, 31 protons, 39 neutrons and 4 energy levels. Gallium is located in group 13, period 4 and block P in the periodic table. Gallium is found in the solid state at room temperature (20 °C). Gallium's melting point is 29.76 °C (85.57 °F) and its boiling point is 2204 °C (3999 °F).

    Gallium metal was discovered by the French chemist Paul-Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1875.
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    Gallium Properties Uses and Facts

    Properties of Gallium

    • Gallium is a silvery-white lustrous metal.
    • Gallium is a very soft and brittle metal, which breaks easily, and can be cut with an ordinary knife.
    • Gallium's melting point is 29.76 °C, due to which it melts easily even with the heat of a human hand.
    • Gallium has the highest liquid limit of any other metal. It remains liquid in the temperature range of 29.76°C to 2204°C.
    • Gallium can be supercooled very easily. Supercooling means cooling a substance in its liquid state to a temperature much lower than its melting point without bringing it to the solid state.
    • Gallium is a chemically reactive element, reacting with almost all nonmetals at high temperatures.
    • Gallium reacts readily with both acids and bases.
    • When gallium is cooled excessively, its volume increases.
    • Gallium arsenide can generate laser light directly from electricity.
    • Gallium readily forms alloys with most metals.

    Uses of Gallium

    • Gallium is used in high speed semiconductors. It is an important component of many semiconductors, and is a substitute for silicon in the electronics industry.
    • Gallium is used as the light emitting diode in red and blue LEDs.
    • Gallium has the highest liquid limit of all metals, and has a high boiling point, so it is used in thermometers to measure high temperatures.
    • Gallium is used in the manufacture of solar cells that are used in spacecraft and satellites.
    • Gallium nitride, also a semiconductor, is used in computers, mobile phones, Blu-ray technology, green and blue LEDs, and pressure sensor switches.
    • Gallium is used to create highly reflective surfaces on ceramics and glass.
    • Gallium is used to make low melting point alloys.
    • Gallium alloys are used to stabilize plutonium in nuclear weapons.

    Interesting Facts about Gallium

    • Gallium 35 is the most abundant element in the Earth's crust.
    • Gallium is mainly found in association with zinc, aluminum and copper ores.
    • Gallium is not toxic and is also not used by animals and plants.
    • The Gallium Neutrino Observatory in Italy has collected large amounts of gallium trichloride (GaCl3) to study particles called neutrinos produced during nuclear fusion processes inside the Sun.
    • Gallium is found in our body in trace amounts, about 0.7 mg of gallium is present in the body of an adult.
    • Compounds of gallium can be harmful to health, causing skin rashes and reduction in the formation of red blood cells.

    Detailed Information on Some other Metals

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