Antimony | Properties | Uses | and Facts - Elements and Compounds


Friday, April 28, 2023

Antimony | Properties | Uses | and Facts

Properties Uses and Facts about Antimony

    What is Antimony

    Antimony is classified as a metalloid, and chemically it is an element. Metalloids are elements that show properties of both metals and non-metals. The density of antimony is 6.685 grams per cubic centimeter. Its symbol is Sb, atomic number is 51 and atomic mass is 121.760 amu. There are 51 electrons, 51 protons, 71 neutrons and 5 energy levels in an atom of antimony. In the Periodic Table, Antimony is located in Group 15, Period 5 and Block (P). Antimony is found in solid state at room temperature. Its melting point is 630.63 °C (1167.13 °F), and its boiling point is 1587 °C (2889 °F).

    Antimony has been used since ancient times, so it is unknown who discovered it.
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    Antimony Properties Uses and Facts

    Properties of Antimony

    • Antimony is a silvery-white shiny substance that looks like a metal.
    • Antimony is found in four forms (allotropes), silver-white metallic antimony, yellow antimony, black antimony, and explosive white antimony.
    • Silvery-white antimony is hard and brittle, and is the most stable form of antimony.
    • Explosive-white antimony is a substance very sensitive to shocks, it explodes when it is slightly shaken, scratched, bent and suddenly heated.
    • Black antimony has a composition similar to that of red phosphorus, it oxidizes in air and ignites suddenly, and at temperatures above 100 degrees it gradually turns into silvery-white antimony.
    • Yellow antimony is the most unstable form of antimony.
    • Antimony is a poor conductor of electricity and heat.
    • Antimony can also be prepared as a shiny black powder.
    • Antimony is chemically less reactive, it does not react with oxygen in the air at room temperature.
    • Antimony does not react with cold water, whereas it reacts with hot water to form antimony oxide (Sb2O3).
    • Antimony does not react with most cold acids, while it dissolves in some hot acids, and it also dissolves in aqua regia at room temperature.
    • Antimony and many of its compounds are toxic.

    Uses of Antimony

    • In the electronics industry, ultra-pure antimony is used to make a variety of semiconductors such as infrared detectors and diodes.
    • Some amount of antimony is mixed with lead metal, this increases the strength of lead metal.
    • Lead and antimony alloys are used in batteries.
    • Antimony alloys are used in Type metal, bullets, ammunition, low-friction metals, cable sheathing, etc.
    • Antimony compounds are used to make fireproof materials, ceramic enamels, paints, glass, and pottery.
    • The ancient Egyptians used antimony for black eye makeup.
    • Antimony is used as a catalyst in the production of some plastics.
    • Tin metal turns into gray-tin at temperatures below 13.2 °C, to prevent this change tin is mixed with a small amount of bismuth or antimony.

    Interesting Facts about Antimony

    • Antimony is the 65th most abundant element in the Earth's crust.
    • There is evidence of the use of antimony even before 4000 BC.
    • Most of the world's antimony is produced in China, which accounts for about 60% of the world's total antimony production.

    Detailed Information on Some other Elements

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