Hydrogen | Properties | Uses | Other Details - Elements and Compounds


Friday, February 24, 2023

Hydrogen | Properties | Uses | Other Details

Hydrogen Properties Uses and Other Details

    What is Hydrogen

    Hydrogen is an element, its symbol is H, Hydrogen is the lightest element, its atomic number is 1, and its atomic mass is 1.00794. It is at the first position in the Periodic Table. It has one electron and one proton in its atom, due to which it is the simplest atom. Hydrogen atoms are very reactive, so they are not found in free state. Being very reactive, two atoms of hydrogen combine to form one molecule of hydrogen gas, H2, so most pure hydrogen is found in the form of hydrogen-gas.

    Hydrogen was discovered by Henry Cavendish in 1766. Antoine Levassier named it hydrogen in 1783 because it combines with oxygen to form water.
    What-is-Hydrogen, Properties-of-Hydrogen, uses-of-Hydrogen, details-on-Hydrogen-gas, Hydrogen-gas, facts-about-Hydrogen, Where-Is-Hydrogen-Found,
    Hydrogen Properties Uses and Other Details

    Properties of Hydrogen

    • Hydrogen is a colourless, tasteless, odorless gas.
    • Its density is 0.00008988 grams per cubic centimeter.
    • It is a highly inflammable gas.
    • it burns in the presence of oxygen. 
    • Its flame is colorless and almost invisible, and the temperature of its flame is very high.
    • When hydrogen and oxygen burn together, water is formed as a byproduct.
    • Hydrogen is found in gaseous state at normal temperature. It is found in the liquid state at a temperature of -252.87 °C to -259.34 °C, and at lower temperatures it is found in the solid state.

    Types of Hydrogen Molecules

    There are three types of hydrogen molecule:-

    (1) Protium

    It is a simple hydrogen molecule, which is found in maximum quantity. It has only one electron and one proton, and no neutrons.

    (2) Deuterium

    Deuterium, which makes up 0.002 percent of ordinary hydrogen atoms, is a stable molecule discovered in 1932 by Harold Urey. In this hydrogen molecule, apart from one electron and one proton, there is also a neutron. Due to having a neutron in it, it is twice as heavy as an ordinary hydrogen atom, hence it is also called heavy hydrogen or deuterium. It reacts with oxygen to form heavy water (D2O).

    (3) Tritium

    Tritium is a very rare and radioactive hydrogen molecule, it has one electron, one proton and two neutrons. It is three times heavier than ordinary hydrogen molecule, it is a very unstable molecule, it was discovered in 1934.

    Where is Hydrogen found

    Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe, all the trillions of stars in the universe and our sun are also made of hydrogen. Apart from this, many gaseous planets such as Jupiter are also made of hydrogen, according to an estimate, 75% of the total weight of the universe is only hydrogen.

    Most of the hydrogen on our earth is found in the form of compound. Hydrogen gas is very light, due to which it is found in very small quantities in the upper atmosphere of the earth. On earth it is found in the form of water (H2O), each molecule of water (H2O) has two atoms of hydrogen. In this way hydrogen is available on earth in the form of water in oceans and rivers and in the form of ice on poles and mountains. Apart from this, it is also present in the form of water in every animal and plant.

    All types of hydrocarbons (such as methane CH4, ethane C2H6, propane C3H8), acids (such as hydrochloric acid HCL, sulfuric acid H2SO4, nitric acid NHO3), hydroxides (such as sodium hydroxide NAOH), oils, and petroleum products Contains a large amount of hydrogen.

    How Hydrogen is made

    There are many methods of making hydrogen, some of which are as follows: -
    • Hydrogen is obtained by the reaction of zinc and sulfuric acid.
    • Hydrogen is also obtained by the reaction of aluminum and sodium hydroxide.
    • Hydrogen is also obtained from the electrolysis of water.

    Uses of Hydrogen

    • Hydrogen is very useful for life. Life cannot be imagined without hydrogen. Hydrogen does not affect life in a direct way, but it affects life in an indirect way, like the sun which is mainly made of hydrogen gas, we get heat and light from it. Life is not possible without water which is made of hydrogen and oxygen. All types of oils and fats that we use or that our body is made of are all made of hydrogen.
    • Hydrogen is used as fuel in all types of rockets that are used to go into space. In these rockets, liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen are burnt together, which generates a lot of energy, which allows the rocket to go into space easily.
    • Hydrogen is used in the purification of many metals.
    •  Ammonia gas is produced by reacting hydrogen gas with nitrogen gas, which is used in the manufacture of fertilizers.
    • Oxyhydrogen flame is produced by burning hydrogen and oxygen together, whose temperature is very high. It is used for melting, cutting, joining, and welding metals.
    • Vanaspati ghee (a cheap alternative to clarified butter) is made by treating hydrogen with vegetable oil.
    • Hydrogen, along with nitrogen, is used in the glass industry to make flat glass sheets.
    • Hydrogen is used to generate electricity through a fuel cell.
    • Scientific research and efforts are being made to generate energy by nuclear fusion method to obtain pollution-free energy similar to that of the Sun through hydrogen. In this method, hydrogen atoms are pressed at high temperature and high pressure, due to which helium is formed and a lot of energy is released. But this process is very complex and difficult, efforts are being made to control it. If there is success in controlling the Nuclear Fusion method, then unlimited energy can be generated on the earth.

    Some interesting information related to hydrogen

    • Hydrogen is the only element whose atom can exist without a neutron.
    • Hydrogen is the only element that exists in three forms (1) Protium, (2) Deuterium, (3) Tritium.
    • Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe.
    • The human body contains about 10% of hydrogen by body weight.
    • Hydrogen is 14 times lighter than air.

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